Soil microbiology focuses on the soil viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and protozoa, but it has traditionally also included investigations of the soil animals such as the nematodes, mites, and other microarthropods. These organisms, collectively referred to as the soil biota, function in a belowground ecosystem based on plant roots and litter as food sources. Modern soil microbiology represents an integration of microbiology with the concepts of soil science, chemistry, and ecology to understand the functions of microorganisms in the soil environment. The surface layers of soil contain the highest numbers and variety of microorganisms, because these layers receive the largest amounts of potential food sources from plants and animals. The soil biota form a belowground system based on the energy and nutrients that they receive from the decomposition of plant and animal tissues. The primary decomposers are the bacteria and fungi. Present book has been designed to provide overall information to the readers about soil, soil microflora and their activities.